Gemeinschaftseigentum

Alle Räume, Flächen und Bestandteile einer Wohnanlage, die nicht zum Sondereigentum zählen sind Gemeinschaftseigentum.
Im Zweifel liegt Gemeinschaftseigentum vor.

Laut Gesetz gehören zum Gemeinschaftseigentum zwingend:

  • das Grundstück, auf dem die Anlage errichtet ist.
  • alle Bestandteile der Anlage die für deren Bestand und Sicherheit erforderlich sind.
  • alle Anlagen und Einrichtungen, die dem gemeinsamen Gebrauch der Wohnungseigentümer dienen.

Keine Abgrenzungsschwierigkeiten dürfte es geben bei Grundstück, Fundament, Dach, Treppenhaus, Heizungskeller, Waschküche, Fahrstuhl und Gemeinschaftsleitungen.

Über die Zuordnung andere Gebäudeteile gab es jedoch schon viele gerichtliche Auseinandersetzungen.
Folgende Flächen rechneten die Richter jeweils der Gemeinschaft zu:

  • erdgeschossige Terrasse mit Außentreppe ohne eindeutige Abgrenzung (Verwaltungsgerichtshof München, WuM 1998, Seite 423)
  • Schichten zur Feuchtigkeitsisolierung und Wärmedämmung unter einer Dachterrasse (Bayerisches Oberstes Landesgericht, NJW-RR 1989, Seite 1293)
  • Fensterscheiben und Fensterrahmen mit Innen- und Außenseiten sowie die Scheiben – unabhängig davon, ob es sich um Einfachverglasung oder Mehrscheibenglas handelt (Landgericht Lübeck, NJW 1986, Seite 2514)
  • Bodenplatten der Balkone, wenn sie zumindest teilweise mit den Decken der darunter liegenden Wohnungen identisch sind (Oberlandesgericht Hamm, ZMR 1989, Seite 98)
  • Außenwände der Balkone, Decken der Balkone, Balkongitter und Seitenwände sowie Balkonbrüstungen (Oberlandesgericht Düsseldorf, ZMR 1991, Seite 486)
  • Türöffner der Hauptsprechanlage einer Eigentumswohnanlage (Amtsgericht Böblingen, NJW-RR 1996, Seite 1297)

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