Das Sondereigentum bezeichnet den Teil des Wohnungseigentums, der im Alleineigentum eines einzelnen Eigentümers steht. Sondereigentum kann ein Anlagenbestandteil nur werden, wenn er ausdrücklich dazu bestimmt wird. Eine solche Bestimmung kann entweder in der ursprünglichen Teilungserklärung, die gegenüber dem Grundbuchamt vorgenommen wird, oder durch Vertrag aller Miteigentümer erfolgen.

Zum Sondereigentum dürfen aber nur sondereigentumsfähige Teile erklärt werden. Das sind solche, die in sich abgeschlossen sind.
Dazu gehören in der Regel:

  • abgeschlossene Wohn- oder Geschäftsräume und die hierzu gehörenden Bestandteile, also auch Balkon, Veranda und Terrasse, wenn sie mit dem Wohnraum verbunden sind und vertraglich als Sondereigentum bezeichnet werden.
  • Tiefgaragenstellplätze, wenn die einzelnen Flächen durch dauerhafte Markierungen ersichtlich sind (nicht dagegen Duplexgaragen).
  • einzelne Räume, zum Beispiel der Keller, die zwar außerhalb des Wohnraums liegen, trotzdem aber räumlich von anderen Bereichen abgetrennt sind.
  • einzelne Gebäudeteile, wie zum Beispiel nicht tragende Innenwände, Innentüren, Bodenbeläge und sogar die Humusschicht auf der Dachterrasse.
  • Anlagen und Einrichtungen in den einzelnen Räumen, so zum Beispiel Einbauschränke, Sanitärgegenstände, nicht für die Funktion der Gesamtanlage notwendige Heizkörper sowie Versorgungsleitungen, die von der Hauptleitung weg zu den einzelnen Wohneinheiten führen.

Liegen die Leitungen jedoch noch im Bereich des Gemeinschaftseigentums und dienen lediglich dem Einzelnen, müssen sie ausdrücklich zum Sondereigentum erklärt werden.

Die Eigenschaft als Sondereigentum kann nur vertragliche Vereinbarung zwischen allen Wohnungseigentümern begründet werden, nicht dagegen durch Mehrheitsbeschluss der Eigentümerversammlung. Werden dennoch entsprechende Beschlüsse gefasst, sind diese nicht nur anfechtbar, sondern mangels Beschlusskompetenz nichtig (Beschluss des Bundesgerichtshofes vom 20.09.2000, Aktenzeichen: V ZB 58/99).

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